THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE
THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE
Water is a finite resource, in the sense that the amount of water present on our planet has always been constant throughout its history. Nevertheless it has always been moving around: changing state and distribution. This continuous closed-loop process of water moving on, above, and below the surface of the Earth is called the hydrological cycle. It is the journey
of a water drop that moves and transforms by the physical processes of precipitation, runoff and infiltration, subsurface flow, evaporation and condensation. This cycle can be dramatically altered under the pressure of given natural or anthropogenic factors, in turn affecting the availability of freshwater (both quantitatively and qualitatively).
The arrival of humans and the increasing impact of their actions on the environment have altered this cycle in direct and indirect ways. Direct impacts are caused by groundwater abstraction – causing groundwater levels to drop, saltwater intrusion along coasts to develop – , land use changes through deforestation and urbanization – leading to increased runoff, decreased evapotranspiration, reduced groundwater recharge –and man-made pollution of rivers and water bodies – leading to eutrophication and low water quality – . The most important indirect impact occurs through climate change by which an increase of the average earth surface temperature leads to a speeding up of the hydrological cycle. This leads to a wide range of effects such as higher evaporation rates combined with an increased capability of the atmosphere to hold water moisture, thereby leading to higher intensity rainfall, and an increased frequency and intensity of storms or hurricanes.
Since 1995, CODESIGN srl specializes in audiovisual communication, with particular regard for graphic and motion design.
Over its 20 years of activity, Codesign has developed a unique experience over social communication, and has developed strong collaboration ties with important Italian and international organizations such as WWF, UNICEF, UNESCO, FAO, ONU, MEDICI SENZA FRONTIERE, etc. That led to the production of medium and short format videos.
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WWAP & WWDR REFERENCE
WWDR 2012, Chapter 2 – Figure 2.10:
A simplified conceptual framework illustrating the role of ecosystems in the water cycle
Below you may find a selection of resources related to the topics displayed and discussed in the short movie. This is a non-exhaustive list which only serves to provide with additional background material. Most of the subjects tackled have been covered by different World Water Development Reports which are listed in a separate section, followed by a number of external resources.